The main objective of this study is to compare the efficiencies of organic and conventional farms in Poland. As shown by the conducted analysis, acting in compliance with the essential production principles, organic farms practiced extensive farming which resulted in reduced efficiency of productive inputs. The efficiency of land and labour measured by the Adjusted Net Value Added was respectively nearly 30 and 65 per cent higher in conventional holdings. Moreover, subsidies contribute more to the income of organic farms, making them strongly dependent on external support (this is especially true for farms with grazing livestock). As a part of policy planning, it should be taken into consideration that organic farms may in the future encounter a development barrier stemming from lower efficiency, difficult access to subsidies and, finally, lower levels of income.