Tag: vector error correction model

Impact of consumer confidence on pork prices in Korea, taking into account the quality difference: a comparison between imported frozen and domestic chilled pork belly

This study empirically explores the impact of consumer confidence on frozen and chilled pork belly prices in Korea, taking the quality difference into account. For our analysis, we utilise the vector error correction model (VECM) and impulse-response function. Based on the weak exogenous test results, we find that consumer confidence has a long-run causality on frozen and chilled pork belly prices in Korea. The cointegration vector from VECM also shows that consumer confidence has a positive and negative effect on high- (chilled pork belly) and low-quality food (frozen pork belly) prices, respectively. Impulse-response function results reveal that chilled pork belly prices are affected by consumer confidence more frozen pork belly prices. Our findings have implications for Korean pig meat farmers as well as importers. First, consumer confidence, a leading composite index for the future, is important for high-quality pork, particularly chilled pork belly. In turn, pig-raising farmers that produce chilled pork belly may improve their profits by setting the number of pigs they raise based on the consumer confidence index. Second, importers of frozen pork belly can enhance their profits by choosing their import volume based on the consumer confidence index. Our results confirm that consumer confidence affects the demand ...

Price transmission on the Slovak dairy market

There are problems in the functioning of the food supply chain related to price transmission and value-added distribution. Vertical price transmission analysis is an important research area in the aspect of the assessment of impact on the welfare at the producer, processor and retailer levels. The paper investigates vertical price transmission along the whole milk supply chain after the end of European Union milk quotas in the Slovak market using a vector error correction model. Monthly farm-gate, processor and retail prices in the Slovak Republic covering the period from 2010 to 2016 were used in the analysis. Using the Johansen co-integration technique, empirical evidence has been found for two co-integration equations between farm-gate, processor and retail prices. We show that short-term and long-term bilateral causal relationships exist between prices at different market stages. The estimation of the price transmission elasticity supports the assumption that price changes are not transmitted efficiently from one level to another. However, symmetric price transmission exists between farm-gate and processor prices for whole milk in the long term. The perfect price transmission may also be due to recently emerging and strengthening the producer organisations that enable producers support their bargaining position in the supply chain.

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  • Scopus SJR (2023): 0.29
  • Scopus CiteScore (2022): 2.0
  • WoS Journal Impact Factor (2023): 0.9
  • WoS Journal Citation Indicator (2023): 0.33
  • ISSN (electronic): 2063-0476
  • ISSN-L 1418-2106



Publisher Name: Institute of Agricultural Economics Nonprofit Kft. (AKI)

Publisher Headquarters: Zsil utca 3-5, 1093-Budapest, Hungary

Name of Responsible Person for Publishing:        Dr. Pal Goda

Name of Responsible Person for Editing:             Dr. Attila Jambor

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

The publication cost of the journal is supported by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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