The export tax rebate policy in China is under dispute, especially in agricultural sectors, as it is claimed that it works as a subsidy for foreign consumers rather than domestic producers. Surprisingly, little research has investigated the distribution of benefits of this policy. In this paper, we examine this in a partial equilibrium framework. We find that the effects of the export tax rebate on domestic producers depend on the relative magnitude of the export supply and import demand elasticities. The model is then applied to the Chinese fishery sector, a perfect example to illustrate the policy debate. Simulation results indicate that, although the export tax rebate increases Chinese producers’ welfare, foreign consumers capture most of its welfare benefits (60%-75%). Furthermore, the results imply that the welfare gain for Chinese producers is overestimated if vertical linkage between the retail and the farm markets is ignored.