This study shows the impact of cropping intensity on the economic results of plant production in Poland. The real amount of production outlays, which in value terms represents the level of direct costs, was adopted as the intensity measure. The economic results diversification scale is reflected by the level of gross margin and income from management activity, as well as by the production profitability index in the activity types analysed. When using low-intensity, as compared to high-intensity, cropping technologies, the economic results of the activities in question become more favourable. The profitability analysis of various production factors points to a prevalence of agricultural farms with low intensity levels of the activity conducted. Lower outlays of production means contributed to a more effective utilisation of both the natural soil fertility, and labour combined with fixed assets. A lower use of chemical crop-enhancing agents forces the farmer to employ more environmentally-friendly methods to keep production at a profitable level. The results show that the use of modern technological achievements may contribute to reducing the unfavourable impact of chemical agents on the natural environment, consistent with maintaining high economic efficiency of agricultural production.